The most frequent congenital disability in the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), a broader collection of congenital disabilities, is bladder exstrophy. One of the following applies to kids with BEEC:
Epispadias. The urethra, the tube used to release pee, does not fully grow in this variant of BEEC, which is the least severe.
Bladder dysfunction. The bladder develops on the outside of the body due to this abnormality. Additionally, the bladder is turned inside and out. Organs of the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts are frequently affected by bladder exstrophy. There can be issues with the abdominal wall, the bladder, the genitalia, the pelvic bones, the large intestine’s last segment (the rectum), and the hole at the end of the rectum (the anus).
Children diagnosed with bladder exstrophy typically experience additional conditions, such as vesicoureteral reflux. This can cause urine to flow in the wrong direction and back into the tubes connecting to the kidneys (ureters). Epispadias is another common condition that children with bladder exstrophy may also experience.
Cloacal exstrophy is the most severe form of BEEC. It occurs when the fetus’s rectum, bladder, and genitals fail to separate during development. The pelvic bones are also affected, and the organs may not form correctly. The kidneys, backbone, and spinal cord may also be affected. Children born with protruding abdominal organs likely have either cloacal or bladder exstrophy. Most children with cloacal exstrophy have spinal abnormalities, including spina bifida.