Filter Glossary


  • Overview


    Adenomyosis is a condition where the endometrial tissue, which usually lines the uterus, grows into the muscular wall of the uterus. This can lead to an enlarged uterus and painful, heavy periods as the displaced tissue thickens, breaks down, and bleeds during each menstrual cycle. The cause of adenomyosis is unknown, but it typically resolves after menopause. Hormonal treatments may benefit women experiencing severe discomfort, while a hysterectomy can cure the condition entirely.

  • Symptoms


    Adenomyosis may not always lead to noticeable signs or symptoms or may only cause slight discomfort. However, it can also result in:
    Heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding
    Severe cramping or sharp, knifelike pelvic pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
    Chronic pelvic pain
    Painful intercourse (dyspareunia)

    During pregnancy, your uterus may expand in size. While it may be challenging to determine if this is the case, you may feel tenderness or pressure in your lower abdomen as a possible indication.

  • When to see a doctor


    If you experience prolonged, heavy bleeding or severe cramping during your menstrual periods that disrupt your daily routine, you should schedule an appointment with your healthcare provider.

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  • Causes


    The exact cause of adenomyosis remains unknown, but there are several theories. One theory suggests that endometrial cells from the uterus lining invade the muscle that forms the uterine walls, possibly due to uterine incisions made during surgery, like a cesarean section. Another theory posits that endometrial tissue is deposited in the uterine muscle during fetal development, while a third suggests that uterine inflammation during childbirth could be a factor. Finally, a recent theory proposes that bone marrow stem cells might be responsible for adenomyosis. Regardless of the cause, adenomyosis growth is influenced by the body’s estrogen levels.

  • Risk factors


    Adenomyosis is a medical condition caused by several risk factors, including prior uterine surgeries like C-sections, fibroid removal, dilatation and curettage (D&C), childbirth, and middle age. Adenomyosis is more prevalent in women in their 40s and 50s due to their prolonged estrogen exposure. However, recent studies suggest that younger women might also be at risk of developing the condition.

  • Prevention



  • *Please note that the information provided in the article is for reference purposes only. It is essential to consult a doctor before applying any of the suggestions mentioned.

Content Details

Medical info from Mayo Clinic, for reference only. Visit Hoan My for better advice.

Last updated on: 07/08/2023